Tho mantimo kingdoms at this phase of Indian hiatorj w ere of no avail against tho might of a powerful Muslim state in Nortliern India, constantly replenish- ing its supplies of soldiers and horses from tho mlds of Centra!Asia The eleventh ccntiirj also saw tho entry of tho Muslim Arab merchants into South East Asia which ultimately ended m tho conv ersion of the people of the Indian Archipelago into Islam, aided tho Mongol invasions of South-East Asia that began in a n 1282 with Kubla Khan’s invasion of Champa from Canton bj sea In 1287 Pagan was pillaged bj tho Mongols Soon Annam, Champa, Suk’ot’ni and Lopburi were forced to admit vassalage In 1296 when 1 Kubla Ivhan's ambassador v isitcd Angkor, ho, how o\ cr, found it a most pros- perous and luxurious city inliabited by ov cr a million population and endow od ■with hospitals, complete with nurses and doctors, attached to its numerous temples of Hindu deities and pleasure boats on its beautiful lake The eastern land route connecting India with Burma, Thailand, Indo China and China was used from the 1st century of tho millennium till at least tho 11th century a d Two Indian Buddhist monk pilgrims went to China by this route in tho Ist century a n I Tsing mentions twenty Cluneso pilgrims as having reached India tlwough Upper Burma m tho 3rd or 4th century a d Prom India in the reverse direction travelled Buddhabhadra of Gandhaxa along With a compamou of Fa Hien tlirough Upper Burma and Tonkm to China in the 5th century a d Germim mentions that from the Brahmaputra valley and Mampur to the Tonkin gulf can be traced a continuous string of small Hindu colomes and kingdoms Tagon, Upper Pagan and Sen wi m Btnrma., 'Ss.v^ Ok MX/g Kivui JR, w/i vn, La'ca country and Agranagara and Champa in Tonkin and Annain The Hindu names of some of the 8\ates are Kausambl, Atavirastra, Suvarnagrama, Unmargabla, Yonakarastra or Hanpuujaya, Agranagara, Videha, Gandhara and Champa All these became imjiortant centres of culture and art From the tenth century the eastern routes both by land and by sea became some of Asia’s most frequented highways of traffic and pilgrim travel as well as of migration and invasion India, China and South Eastern Asia In A D 1033 the Chmese Emperor T’ait Song of the Song dynasty got a stupa erected at Bodhgaya In a d 1077 the Ghola Emperor sent the last Indian 24 THE Fi OTVERIVC OF IHDIAV ATT embassj' to Ghana The same year saw the accession to the throne of the m£»t fanaons cmpetor of Burroa, Kjunzittha TTho invited many Buddhists and Vaianavas to settle in Boots and built the Ananda templo in his capital Pagan.
India established her colonies and kingdoms abroad as tho result entirely of peaceful trade, evangelisation and mi Asionaty enterprise It vms a process not of coiitiuc Nt hut of social Hindtiiiation, a _ I gradual fusion of races encouraged especially by the egalitarian outlooka of Boddhism and Tantnii.'nth physicians and nurses An elaborate list of medicaments and other commodities provided for the hospitals is fumisli^ The Indian spirit of complete identification mth the pam and suffering of relloiiman underhes the foundation of the hospitals of the Pacific by tho Hinduised Kambuja Ilmperor as revealed by his inscription ‘"The pain of the diseased became in tho king a ment al suffering more severe than the former for the real pain of a king is tho pam of his subjects not his own bodily pain ” Tho same humane spirit actuated the Burmese king Kyonzittha (a d 10S4- 1112) who built the Ananda temple m Pagan as recorded in an inscription of his ‘TVith loving kmdness shall king Kyanzittha wipe away the tear?
of those who are parted from their trusted friends — his people shall bo unto bim as a child to its mother s bosom — ^he shall soften the hearts of those who intend evil With -wisdom, which is even as the hand, shall kind Kyanzittha draw open the bar of the Gate of Heaven -which is made of gold and -wrought vith gems ” On tho base of one of the gramte towers in Zayton (Satm modem Chuan chow) the far famed ancient Chmesc port in the province of Fu chien, was sculptured in a D , 1228 1250 the scene of the Buddha’s self immolating com passion that drives him to embrace death by a fall from a cbff in order to nonrish a starvmg tigress about to eat up its own cubs The same edifying story was represented m a fresco in a cave in Tun huang in the 6th century, 2G THE PLOWER1^0 OT INDIA ART ttotf Ci Eil m the 7t K century, in a ahrmo in the Ilecyuit temple at Kara ifl the 8th century and m Tibetan tankas from the seventh to the nineteenth ceatunes Such la the perennial fascin Ation that this birth legend depicting the supreme compassion of tho Bodhisaltra had la cinlised Asia The site of its enactment was commemorated by a stupa built in tho carl^ centuries of thw nullen ntum by one of tho Kn?
270 Zoslioten (Sk V ini Oli Aka), 213 The Flowering of INDIAN ART The Growth and Spread. MUICERJEE Formr Uj I’tw Chanee Uor, Unmrtit^of Lnehiow Dtrtclor, I K In Mtlitie of Scctolcgffand Jfnman Itdnlwvs ASIA PUBLISHING HOUSE BOMBAY CALCUTTA NEW DELHI JIADBAS LUCKNOW LONDON NEW l ORK ly; i UUl SI Ili UJJl AKAAUUj i UL/Ji£i(Ji::i:: pnisn D IN ind:\ pukfack (X n r A R T of India h thn imngo ami ^oluc^rof Iior thought and ci\ ilization" 1 It cannot Ik* rightl\ undcntood and inttrprcttd without nn appreciation of the inner life nnd \isiou of tho Indian pcojilo Art f*cts forlli tilt Intttr in pro found, luininon»and enduring image'* and Minhols through the ugc^ bjmbo N icons and nioti Powcr, orersteppmg the rigid prcecnptiona of creed and iconographj bet forth from the innermost experiences of spiritual contemplation such images brought vast numbers of Asian peoples in Xepal, Tibet Cojlon Indonesia Farther India China Mongolia Korea and Japan m closer proximity to tho univ crsal spiritual v alucs and aspirations of mankind Buddhist art m Asia treated tho histoneal events of tho Nativ ity, Rcnuncia ti^n Teenptativ«japala of Ceylon Siam, Champa and Japan, and the Henika of Nepal Tibet, Sumatra, Jav S and Cambodia The transcendental serenity and sweet nes8 of the former and tho majesty and tension of violence of the latter corred ponded to their prototypes m the homeland Similarly the Chinese and Japanese paintings of the magic diagram of the cosmos or the Tantnka mandala with Mai A \ airochana the Great niummator or Pore Consciousness in the centre like tho reaplendcnt sun and the Pnmeval Buddhas surronnding him as platveta breathed a sense of fulness and self competence derived from the last Indian Tiintnka synthesis that spread throughout Asia from Bengal to Jaia China and Japan from the 7th to the 0th centuries a n The sculptures and paintings of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas oft Vci Sui and Tang China and Ha Luho and Nara Japan and tho Japanese Shingon representations of Bai Itoku, Tudo and tho Four Guardian Kings counterparts of the horrendous Indian images of Bhatfa\ a Vairochana and Dvarpalas respectively w hich are some of tho marvels in world art owe more than is generally imagined to Indian inspiration AH tlus was possible because lodian Buddhist and Tantrika jnetophysies came to liio and moio as Buddhist and Tantrika art m Asia It thrilled the imagination of tho various Asian peoples and becoming inseparable from a total harmomons and savid experience ga\o ample scope for &ee crealno expressions and imcntions of national character All rooc Ls m Asia led from India for more than a mi Ucnium and a half There aro two regions beyond the frontiers of India where the ancient Indian cnihaation met Its sister, tho ancient Chino Mi ciiilization half wo\ during tho first millcnium of tho Christian cm Ono is the Tarim (Sanskrit Sita) hasm, where llimlii colomts and kingdoms along the oasib fringed Silk Routes hecamo the spring hoards of the spread of Indian culture of Mhich Indian art vas tho soliick Prom Ajant T, Ta\i K Kogareh'ra and Bamijaii through Kucha Kizil and Ttirfan extended a chain of ra\o monasteries in China as far as Korea and Yunnan, w itli car\ ing H and frc-scoos, of tho Buddha, Jfaitro 3 a A\alokitos\nrn or Kunn\m.
21 Zatoi), modem Cbuon c Lotr, S5 Zenlluddbism and art.
Ttt faiths of the people, into tkcir ntual ablutions and worship by hj Tnna and prayers, and penodically by tho institution of pilgrimage to tho sacred aties, nvers, lakes and taountama and the principal temples of gods and goddesses distributed m c% erj part of the land Tcoltirrally, the image of Ifan in India is cosmic or universal (fatjrdnara) ‘ms motherland comprises tho tlirce realms — earth, hcaien and tho nnder world” Tho Cosmic Man or Purv^a is tho true eternal expression of human freedom and perfection in India The temple architecture of the conntry is based on the symbolism of tho metaphysical Cosmic Man.
The temple is built aa a replica of tho body of Purufa or Prajupctti, which comprehends tho muverse as a microcosm Tho different parts of the tcmpla spire (^tl Tutra) are designated as His akm, trunk, neck and akuin The spiro is capped by the nng atone called armlala, literally 'stainless' which represents tlie dome of his cr ow n In tho myth Punifa divided Himself mto the different parts of cosmoa, life and society Tho tomplo design is rooted in the concept of the recovery of the primordial wholeness befom creation, symbobsed by the cen tr^ mountam of the cosmos called Bumem on the summit of which lies heaven or by the Universal Tree which bears the fruits of holj wisdom The plan and elevation of the temple accordingly embody not only the body of Puma which corr^onds to the shape of the physical and the spintual universe, but also man’s ascent to Hun through the life divine, through contemplation and withdrawal This ascent or release is considered stage by stage, and thus the temple constmction embodies tiers upon, tiers until tho fini^ is reached which IS in.advatl (modern Cliitang) and in the upper reaches of the Sutlej at Rupar and other adjoining sites.It appears that the Indus culture advanced up-stream from its original seat in the Indus basin to the valleys of the Sarosvati and Djisadvatl, and thence to tho bonks of tho Sutloj and its tributaries, these latter in ancient times forming a part of the Sarasvot T system.They established a vast empire extending from the Indus valley (Mohenjo-daro), Kathiawar and Cutch in the south, to Ambala (Rupar) in the north and to Baluchistan (Shahi Tump) in tho north-west.Important sites of Slohenjo-daro and Harappa culture have been discovered in Rajputana on the banks of tho ancient dead rivers, the Sarasvatl (modem Ghaggar-cum-Sarsutl) and the Dfi?Tho lisd of Indian names includes Srlkfctm, Hastinupura, Sudliommasati, Drumsalt, Hains Ti Nntl Iirunri\at T, Asilu Ajann, Kusinianagara, Rumapura, Huttrnia mandala, Utktt?